Typography & Page Layout

Principles of Design
Visually, there is very little originality in design — it is usually a rearrangement of an idea observed and recorded previously. No matter how simple the design may be, there are certain principles that must be applied.

Appreciation of their importance will be slowly gained by observation and practice together with good judgement. This will produce satisfactory results without the need for any mathematical calculations.

Principles of design should always be incorporated in any graphic design project 
to assist its communicating and graphic interest, however in the planning of a basic design, the designer must produce a job to suit the class of work, the copy, and the tastes of the customer.
To develop a sense of design use the three `eyes':
1. Visual-eyes: Examine closely all types of printed material, i.e. physically see/look at what everyone else is/has done. (What catches or eludes your attention, and why?)
2. Critic-eyes: Separate the good from the bad. (What provokes the ad? What motivates you? Those things that don't catch your eye — why?)
3. Analize-eyes: Select the element that makes it a good design.There are three essential qualities needed to become a competent designer:
Vision.— To be able to detect an idea and
 then to toss it around in your head (objects, tones, shapes, colours — everything around you).
Imagination.— To be able to use an idea effectively, i.e. brainstorm the idea and bring it to a state where it can work.
Judgement.— To be able to assess the idea's value and correct place and use, i.e. limitations always arise after you come up with an idea.
The Principles of Design are qualities or characteristics inherent in any art form, such as balance,harmony, contrast, variety, and action.These principles must be used in any design if it is to be in any way effective. Not all of them, however, will be used in the one design.

Whatever principles the designer may adopt, the ultimate result must be a design that can be easily read and clearly understood. Careful control of the principles of design is necessary to successfully project an intended image.

This is the result of an arrangement of one or more elements in the design so that visually, they  equal each other. Every object in nature has structural balance, from the symmetry of a flower petal to the chambers of a snail's shell.
The balance needed every time we perform any form of physical movement is automatically maintained by a built-in equilibrium that we take for granted.
Man-made structures, even if not formally equal on all sides, must maintain a balance in relation to a perpendicular surface. Doubtless the Leaning Tower of Pisa will someday fall when a greater portion of its weight shifts off balance. Sound must also be balanced, both in its production and in its reproduction.
Achieving a physical balance is simple: the weight of one object must be counter-balanced by the weight of another on the opposite end of a fulcrum. If, however, the objects are of different materials, the masses may not appear to be balanced. Because steel is heavier than wood, for example, a large piece of wood is needed to balance a small piece of steel.
Physical balance can be measured by use of a balance scale; there is no agreed scientific method, however, for determining the weights of shapes in the arts. Instead, balance is determined by weighing the objects visually.
For graphic design, the visual centre of any typical A4 page of the business world is not the actual physical centre but what is termed the Optical Centre. This visual point of balance can be determined mathematically as being located three-eights from the top of the page, five-eights from the bottom.


Fine Noodle Package Design gallery

Fine Noodle Package Sketches Design for Dragon Brand. Product of Jungkaiseng Manufacturer of Saraburee Province,Thailand.
Project : One Product One Province Package Design and Development for Thai SMEs.
Designer & Consults Group Head : Assistant Profressor Prachid Tinnabutr.

Package design and development

Package Design and Development
Package design and development are often thought of as an integral part of the new product development process. Alternatively, development of a package (or component) can be a separate process, but must be linked closely with the product to be packaged. Package design starts with the identification of all the requirements: structural design, marketing, shelf life, quality assurance, logistics, legal, regulatory, graphic design, end-use, environmental, etc. The design criteria, time targets, resources, and cost constraints need to be established and agreed upon.

Transport packaging needs to be matched to its logistics system. Packages designed for controlled shipments of uniform pallet loads may not be suited to mixed shipments with express carriers.An example of how package design is affected by other factors is the relationship to logistics. When the distribution system includes individual shipments by a small parcel carrier, the sortation, handling, and mixed stacking make severe demands on the strength and protective ability of the transport package. If the logistics system consists of uniform palletized unit loads, the structural design of the package can be designed to those specific needs: vertical stacking, perhaps for a longer time frame. A package designed for one mode of shipment may not be suited for another.

Sometimes the objectives of package development seem contradictory. For example, regulations for an over-the-counter drug might require the package to be tamper-evident and child resistant: These intentionally make the package difficult to open. The intended consumer, however, might be handicapped or elderly and be unable to readily open the package. Meeting all goals is a challenge.

Package design may take place within a company or with various degrees of external packaging engineering: contract engineers, consultants, vendor evaluations, independent laboratories, contract packagers, total outsourcing, etc. Some sort of formal Project planning and Project Management methodology is required for all but the simplest package design and development programs. An effective quality management system and verification and validation protocols are mandatory for some types of packaging and recommended for all.

Package development involves considertions for sustainability, environmental responsibility, and applicable environmental and recycling regulations. It may involve a life cycle assessment which considers the material and energy inputs and outputs to the package, the packaged product (contents), the packaging process, the logistics system, waste management, etc. It is necessary to know the relevant regulatory requirements for point of manufacture, sale, and use.
 use: if the product is da

The traditional “three R’s” of reduce, reuse, and recycle are part of a waste hierarchy which may be considered in product and package development.

The waste hierarchy Prevention – Waste prevention is a primary goal. Packaging should be used only where needed. Proper packaging can also help prevent waste. Packaging plays an important part in preventing loss or damage to the packaged-product (contents). Usually, the energy content and material usage of the product being packaged are much greater than that of the package. A vital function of the package is to protect the product for its intendedmaged or degraded, its entire energy and material content may be lost.

Minimization –(also "source reduction") The mass and volume of packaging (per unit of contents) can be measured and used as one of the criteria to minimize during the package design process. Usually “reduced” packaging also helps minimize costs. Packaging engineers continue to work toward reduced packging.

Reuse – The reuse of a package or component for other purposes is encouraged. Returnable packaging has long been useful (and economically viable) for closed loop logistics systems. Inspection, cleaning, repair and recouperage are often needed.

Recycling – Recycling is the reprocessing of materials (pre- and post-consumer) into new products. Emphasis is focused on recycling the largest primary components of a package: steel, aluminum, papers, plastics, etc. Small components can be chosen which are not difficult to separate and do not contaminate recycling operations.

Energy recovery – Waste-to-energy and Refuse-derived fuel in approved facilities are able to make use of the heat available from the packaging components.
Disposal – Incineration, and placement in a sanitary landfill are needed for some materials. Certain states within the US regulate packages for toxic contents, which have the potential to contaminate emissions and ash from incineration and leachate from landfill.[5] Packages should not be littered.

Development of sustainable packaging is an area of considerable interest by standards organizations, government, consumers, packagers, and retailers.


Food Packaging Design

In today's competitive marketplace, companies are vying for stretched market share and the margins are wafer-thin. Manufacturers in the food processing industry are therefore turning their attention to design food packaging in order to achieve product differentiation.

Food products have undergone tremendous metamorphosis in terms of variety and value addition. From the simple, staple items the range includes ready-to-eat, convenience and microwave ready foods. From raw materials used as ingredients to finished foods, there are scores of brands, leading and small scale, that dot our supermarkets. In this crowded, if somewhat overwhelming scenario, marketers rely on attractive design food packaging to draw the clients to buy the products.

The basic principles of design food packaging are quite simple. The packaging has to be aesthetically appealing. Research has shown that the clients make a close positive association with the look of the packaging to the perceived benefits of the product. The design should incorporate vibrant colors that match with the image of the product. The next principle is that the packaging design should have an easy to use shape. It follows that the design should consider the packaging doubling up as storage. Gender, cultural and geriatric sensitivities should be considered during the design planning stage. Further, sturdiness to withstand delivery schedules, pilferage and storage losses should be borne in mind while deciding upon the packaging material.

There are certain other important considerations with respect to design food packaging. The most obvious one is of course the name and address of the manufacturer or the made-under-contract operator and the batch number. The details regarding the date of manufacture and the date of expiry should be clearly stated. The packaging should provide true information regarding the nutritional content and benefits of the product. While the benefits could be highlighted, they should be stated in an objective manner. Besides, statutory warnings regarding appropriateness for specific age groups should be mentioned. Last but not the least, clear information on where to contact for further queries or quality related issues should be included.

The process of design food packaging might seem quite complex. It could become easier with clear planning and close cooperation between the manufacturing and marketing departments. The additional revenues projected should be commensurate with the incremental costs to be incurred. Modification of the existing design in the light of new developments is a good technique to start with. However, the manufacturer should remember that if the product has undergone a drastic change, a new design set up is most desirable.

Food is one of the most important needs of the society. Therefore, there is a huge responsibility on the manufacturers to deliver safe and quality products to the consumers. Design food packaging is an important element of this function.

Meaning of Package

Meaning of Package
Many of Package's Guru or Packaging Specialists have been defined the relevance of package described in their related filed such as :-

Packaging is the science, art and technology of enclosing Packaging can be described as a coordinated system of preparing goods for transport, warehousing, logistics, sale, and end use. Packaging contains, protects. preserves, transports, informs, and sells. It is fully integrated into government, business, institutional, industry, and personal use.Package-Guru means : all Knowledge and content series overview about packaging design and developmentor protecting products for distribution, storage, sale, and use. Packaging also refers to the process of design, evaluation, and production of packages. Package labeling (BrE) or labeling (AmE) is any written, electronic, or graphic communications on the packaging or on a separate but associated label.(http://kulkul.xahoihoctap.net/scientific-terms.html?view=mediawiki&article=Packaging#Package_development_considerations 1/12/2008)
Package can be defines as:
1.a bundle of something, usually of small or medium size, that is packed and wrapped or boxed; parcel.
2.a container, as a box or case, in which something is or may be packed.
3.something conceived of as a compact unit having particular characteristics: That child is a package of mischief.
4.the packing of goods, freight, etc.
5.a finished product contained in a unit that is suitable for immediate installation and operation, as a power or heating unit.
6.a group, combination, or series of related parts or elements to be accepted or rejected as a single unit.

(http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/package 1/12/2008)